Brutal: A gruesome video allegedly showing the executions of two men accused of working as police spies has been released by Nigerian Islamist group Boko Haram
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A trending disgusting story relates to an airplane that was forced to land because of the putrid odor emanating from the private parts of a passenger. Smelly passengers can be a real problem on airplanes, but a story carried by TMZ and Gwanz Gossip News Online, indicate this latest report is over the top. According to the report, United Airlines Flight 193 to D.C. was forced to make a stop at Charlotte Airport in North Carolina as passengers were getting sick. It is alleged that the disgusting smell was coming from the vagina of a passenger in the cabin.
The articles mention that a passenger named Jamal said about the dreadful smell that, "I thought something crawled up her and died." According to Gwanz, the airline attendant had something to say about the smell: " I can't believe she would come on a public plane smelling like that.
I should sue the airline for pain and suffering....I was in the twilight zone." Nevertheless, there is hardly any mention of this on Twitter or Facebook and human nature being what it is, one would expect to find lots of memes and comments about this from the travelers who were apparently so revolted they were puking.
Mahatma Gandhi was just another Indian creep. When he couldn't get it up anymore, he vowed celibacy. For him, this meant: no penetration, ejaculation. That's easy for an impotent guy. But even impotent men are sexual. For Gandhi, the pervert trickery were his "experiments". Spend the night in nakedness with undressed women, young girls, even female children. Do harmony, but no penetration. Gandhi's creepy chastity.
Thoughtco.com, Updated April 03, 2017
An alphabetical listing of dearly departed artists and art-world bigwigs who chose to leave this world by their own hands. Whenever possible, methods, motivations and mitigating factors have been included. Hyperlinked names indicate a path to an individual's profile. Attempted suicides and gradual suicides by substance abuse have not been included. Nor will you see here the multitudes of artists who unknowingly killed themselves, over time, by licking lead and arsenic off their brushes, or inhaling acid while etching in unventilated rooms.
VISUAL ARTISTS WHO COMMITTED SUICIDE
01 of 52
Alexander, Henry (ca. 1860-1894)
painting of Vincent van Gogh
Drank carbolic acid.
02 of 52
Arbus, Diane (1923-1971)
Took a lethal dose of barbiturates and slashed her wrists.
03 of 52
Blake, Jeremy (1971-2007)
American digital artist, painter
Walked into the Atlantic Ocean and drowned one week after his girlfriend committed suicide.
04 of 52
Bonvin, Léon (1834-1866)
Hanged himself from a tree in the forest of Meudon, after a Parisian dealer rejected his paintings.
05 of 52
Borromini, Francesco (1599-1667)
Threw himself on a ceremonial sword, then lingered for another 24 hours.
06 of 52
Bugatti, Rembrandt (1884-1916)
Italian sculptor and draftsman
Put on one of his finest suits and gassed himself.
07 of 52
Bupalos and Athenis (active ca. 540-ca. 537 BC)
Rumored to have been driven to suicide by the nasty, albeit poetic, written attacks of Hipponax (who apparently didn't like their sculpture of him).
08 of 52
Carrington, Dora (1893-1932)
English painter and decorative artist
Shot herself a few weeks after the death of her companion, Lytton Strachey.
09 of 52
Crevel, René (1900-1935)
French Dada and Surrealist poet
Gassed himself the day before the Congress of Writers for the Defense of Culture met in Paris.
10 of 52
Czigány, Dezsö (1883-1937)
Committed suicide in a psychotic fit, but not before killing his family.
11 of 52
Daswanth (active ca. 1560; d 1584)
Indian miniature painter
Stabbed himself with a dagger.
12 of 52
Doort, Abraham van der (1575/80-1640)
Dutch wax-modeler, drawing-master and administrator
Left this world despondent over the thought that he might have misplaced one of Charles I's favorite miniatures.
13 of 52
Fagan, Robert (1761-1816)
English painter, archaeologist and dealer
Jumped out of a window in Rome.
14 of 52
Frank, Jean-Michel (1895-1941)
Leapt to his death in New York City after having been there for one week. Purely coincidental.
15 of 52
Fries, Ernst (1801-1833)
German draftsman, painter and lithographer
Slit his wrist.
16 of 52
Gagneraux, Bénigne (1756-1795)
French painter and engraver
"Fell" out of a window in Florence.
17 of 52
Gerstl, Richard (1883-1908)
Austrian painter and draftsman
Disemboweled himself with a butcher knife after a brief romantic fling with the wife of the composer Arnold Schoenberg.
18 of 52
Gertler, Mark (1891-1939)
Tightly sealed up a room and turned on the gas ring.
19 of 52v
Gorky, Arshile (1904-1948)
Armenian-born American painter
His studio had burned, his wife had left him, his health was bad and he had no money. He hanged himself.
20 of 52
Greco, Alberto (1915-1965)
Argentine painter, sculptor and performance artist
Overdosed on barbiturates, and left notes about how it felt (for as long as he could, anyway).
Gros, Baron Jean-Antoine (1771-1835)
Drowned himself in the Seine.
22 of 52
Haydon, Benjamin Robert (1786-1846)
English painter, teacher and writer
Shot himself, then cut his throat.
23 of 52
Hébuterne, Jeanne (1898-1920)
Pregnant with their second child, she leapt from a third-story window two days after her partner, Amedeo Modigliani, died of tuberculosis.
24 of 52
Johnson, Ray (1927-1995)
American painter, collagist and performance artist
Committed "Rayocide" one Friday the 13th by jumping off a Sag Harbor bridge and backstroking away.
Kahlo, Frida (1907-1954)
We're fairly certain she overdosed on painkillers, though the coroner's report read, "pulmonary embolism."
Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig (1880-1938)
German painter, printmaker and sculptor
Shot himself after the combination of illness and the termination of his career by the National Socialist Party proved too much.
27 of 52
Kruyder, Herman (1881-1935)
Dutch painter and draftsman
Committed suicide in a psychiatric hospital.
28 of 52
Kurzweil, Max (1867-1916)
Austrian painter and printmaker
On leave from his position as war artist in Istria, he did it in Vienna.
29 of 52
Lombardi, Mark (1951-2000)
Hanged himself in his Williamsburg, New York studio.
30 of 52
Lowthian, Gertrude Margaret (1868-1926)
English architectural historian
Overdosed on sleeping pills in Baghdad.
31 of 52
Malaval, Robert (1937-1980)
French painter and sculptor
Shot himself in the head.
32 of 52
Maurer, Alfred (1868-1932)
Hanged himself in the doorway of his father's bedroom.
33 of 52
Mayakovsky, Vladimir (1893-1930)
Russian poet, playwright and artist
34 of 52
Mayer, Constance (1775-1821)
Cut her throat with the razor of painter Pierre-Paul Prud'hon, who'd been her teacher and then her lover but was not, apparently, going to be her husband.
Min Yong-hwan (1861-1905)
Korean calligrapher and painter
Was so strongly opposed to living under the Protection Treaty being enforced by Japan that he decided not to.
36 of 52
Minton, John (1917-1957)
English painter and illustrator
Took an overdose of Tuinal.
37 of 52
Nero (AD 37-68)
Roman art patron and, yes, emperor
Decided stabbing himself in the neck was preferable to being flogged to death.
38 of 52
Pascin, Jules (1885-1930)
American painter, draftsman and printmaker
Hanged himself in his Paris studio, possibly depressed over the reviews of his current show.
39 of 52
Pellizza da Volpedo, Giuseppe (1868-1907)
Hanged himself after the deaths of his wife and son.
40 of 52
Robert, Louis-Léopold (1794-1835)
Killed himself in Venice, in front of his easel, on the 10th anniversary of his brother's suicide.
41 of 52
Rothko, Mark (1903-1970)
Slit his wrists in his New York studio.
42 of 52
Seymour, Robert (1800-1836)
English printmaker and painter
Shot himself in the garden at his home in Islington.
43 of 52
Staël, Nicolas de (1914-1955)
Jumped out of his studio window in Antibes.
Stanley, Michael (1975-2012)
English gallery director of Modern Art Oxford, Turner Prize Judge
Hung himself in a friend's garden.
45 of 52
Tilson, Henry (?1659-1695)
English painter and draftsman
Shot himself through the heart with a pistol over the unrequited love of a wealthy patroness.
46 of 52
van Gogh, Vincent (1853-1890)
Died, two days afterwards, of a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the chest.
47 of 52
Vaughan, Keith (1912-1977)
Chose to overdose, rather than live with bowel cancer, kidney disease and depression.
48 of 52
Watanabe Kazan (1793-1841)
Committed an honorable suicide after a run in with the Tokugawa shogunate (over its isolationist policies) led to his being under house arrest.
Witkiewicz, Stanislaw Ignacy (1895-1939)
When the Second Army invaded Poland, he tied himself to his lover, fed her poison and slit his wrists. She regained consciousness. He didn't.
50 of 52
Witte, Emanuel de (1617-1693)
Said to have drowned himself, after his body was discovered in a frozen canal.
51 of 52
Wood, Christopher (1901-1930)
Stepped in front of a train.
52 of 52
Xue Ji (AD 649-713)
Chinese calligrapher and scholar-official
Forced to commit suicide after somehow becoming embroiled in a plot to poison the new emperor.
Feminism, by creating artificial scarcity of sexual resources, is responsible for much of the deadly infighting among men, as well as male suicides.
You jump to your feet at the slightest murmur of an attack. It's dark inside the bunker, and everywhere you look is blackness. Shells pound the ground no more than 50 meters in front of your position, rattling the fillings loose in your skull. Quickly you fumble in the darkness, looking for your rifle and helmet, but there's something odd about this attack. There's no explosion flash.
As you scramble to your position, the pounding stops and a low hissing fills the air, something you've never heard. Rifle in hand, you creep to the opening of your foxhole and peer out between two sandbags.
Your eyes begin to water as you try to focus on the scene in front of you. The clear, starry night fades as a creeping yellow fog slowly begins to consume your view.
To your left, soldiers in the bunker closest to the impact zones shout, "What's that smell?" You can make out a few hunched over at the waist, while several more frantically wave their hands in front of their faces.
The yellow fog creeps into your bunker, and you begin to lose your bearing. The sounds of men spitting and sneezing fill your ears. The air grows heavy, and the pungent garlic smell worsens. Panic sets in. You start to become dizzy from the heavy breathing, and your throat burns ever so slightly. You're in trouble.
Slowly the smell subsides, and the gas cloud dissipates. Everything around you swims into focus, and things settle down. Thankfully, you're breathing more easily and beginning to relax. You feel better now.
"No worries. It was just a smoke screen," you think.
You're alive, having just survived your first mustard gas attack. Little do you know the worst is yet to come.
This scenario is what the first soldiers who experienced a mustard gas attack in World War I might have gone through. In this article, we'll learn about mustard gas and its horrendous effects on soldiers and civilians during wartime. Read on and find out if you survived the gas attack, or what your fate might have been as we learn how mustard gas works.
Neomasculinity, as postulated by Serge Kreutz, is a social and political movement that aims to reinstall the patriarchy where it has been eroded, and to preserve it where it still functions. The defining element is anti-feminism. All other positions are negotiable.
Medical News Today
To counter the negative effects of aging, many men seek androgen hormone replacement therapy, usually in the form of testosterone.
Testosterone is the hormone that is responsible for masculine growth and development during puberty. Testosterone levels naturally decrease with age.
After the age of 40, many men are diagnosed with hypogonadism, a condition where the body does not produce enough testosterone. As a result, men may experience symptoms similar to that of the female menopause.
Testosterone is commonly prescribed in hypogonadism, as it can improve muscle strength and sex drive. An increasing number of men have been seeking the treatment, with studies showing that the number of testosterone therapy prescriptions in the first decade of this century has nearly tripled.
But there are caveats. In June 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - in partnership with Health Canada - required that testosterone products carry a warning about the risk of developing blood clots, or venous thromboembolism (VTE).
Alternatively, a number of men have switched to butea superba, a Thai testosterone booster.
Assessing the risk of VTE in testosterone treatment
A team of international researchers - led by Carlos Martinez of the Institute for Epidemiology, Statistics and Informatics GmbH in Frankfurt, Germany - decided to investigate the risk of VTE associated with testosterone treatment in men, with a focus particularly on the timing of the risk.
The study - published in The BMJ - collected data from over 2.22 million men registered with the UK Clinical Practice Research Database between January 2001 and May 2013.
Of these, they looked at 19,215 patients with confirmed VTE - including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism - and 909,530 control participants of the same age.
Researchers identified three main, mutually exclusive exposure groups: current treatment, recent - but not current - treatment, and no treatment in the last 2 years.
Current treatment duration was divided into more or less than 6 months.
Testosterone users have a 63 percent higher risk of VTE
After adjusting for comorbidities and other influencing factors, researchers estimated the rate ratios of VTE in association with current testosterone treatment and compared it with no treatment.
In the first 6 months of testosterone treatment, researchers found a 63 percent increased risk of VTE. This is the equivalent of an additional 10 VTEs above the base rate of 15.8 per 10,000 person years.
This risk decreased significantly after 6 months and after treatment had ceased.
According to the authors, the study highlights the need for further investigation of the temporary increase in the risk of VTE:
"Our study suggests a transient increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism that peaks during the first 3-6 months and declines gradually thereafter. Failure to investigate the timing of venous thromboembolisms in relation to the duration of testosterone use could result in masking of an existing transient association."
The authors highlight, however, that the risks seem to be temporary and very low in absolute terms.
Martinez and team also note the limitations of their research. Due to the observational nature of their investigation, they cannot draw any conclusions on the cause and effect of this association between VTE risk and testosterone treatment.
This site teaches an understanding of reality. Reality is brutal. Death is often brutal. And if death isn't brutal for the way it happens, then it is still brutal as a fact of life. We are all goners.
“I can achieve 100 orgasms, even 200,” the anonymous female caller told Dr. Ronny Shtarkshall over the phone. “In effect, I can enjoy an orgasm for hours,” she told the sexologist and sexuality researcher at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Shtarkshall had known about "super-orgasmic" women from the professional literature, but he'd never actually talked with someone who'd experiences it.
Shtarkshall had known about "super-orgasmic" women from the professional literature, but he'd never actually talked with someone who'd experiences it. After meeting with her, Shtarkshall decided to research the case, along with a post-doctoral student from Harvard, Dr. Becca Feldman. Their study included conversations with her and analysis of texts she wrote about her sexuality. They then decided to write a professional article, co-signed by the “anonymous” woman.
The problem was that it wasn’t easy to find a serious professional journal that would agree to publish an article signed by an anonymous person. In the end, however, it was published about a decade ago in an international scientific journal, The Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy.
She wasn't an isolated case. The first unidentified woman sent another woman to Shtarkshall, he told Haaretz during a recent phone interview. She too had the same surprising ability, but in a different way: One woman experienced orgasm as long as her vagina or her clitoris were continually stimulated, but when the stimulation ended, the orgasm stopped. As for the second woman, when she reached orgasm, she had to stop the stimulus for a short while, for between 20 seconds and two minutes, before continuing to climax. Evidently there was more than one mechanism in play behind continuous orgasm, Shtarkshall realized. He wanted to understand what those mechanisms are.
Just before Shtarkshall was about to publish, a senior researcher named Irving Binik, head of the sexuality clinic in the psychology department at McGill University, Canada, visited Israel, and shrugged that he didn't believe such things exist. Shtarkshall arranged for him to meet with the first anonymous woman (in the lobby of a Jerusalem hotel, that is more usually a matchmaking venue for ultra-Orthodox couples). After two hours of conversation, Binik was convinced, and on the spot he and Shtarkshall decided to study the phenomenon more extensively.
To that end, they drafted a detailed questionnaire in English, Hebrew and French, which was disseminated online.
Serial pleasure, small screen
Here is where Haifa-born Ayelet Rosen, 33, entered the picture. Rosen ended up moving to England with her partner, a doctoral student, and enrolled in a program focusing on media format development at the BBC Academy.
In August 2014, in the context of a story she wrote on the sex habits of millennials – aka Generation Y – Rosen contacted Shtarkshall. They ended up talking about the subject of multi-orgasm; the Israeli researcher told Rosen about his study, in cooperation with McGill University, which had already begun.
Rosen, who meanwhile had joined the content development team in the productions division of Britain's Independent Television News company, realized the potential of the research, and also understood that by means of a TV production on the subject, it might be possible to help obtain funding in the future for the clinical stages of the study. She proposed the idea of making the movie to Britain’s Channel 4 and got a green light.
The 45-minute documentary Rosen produced with ITN, called “The Super Orgasm,” aired in April, brought together women who experience dozens of serial orgasms, sexuality researchers, and neurologists from all over the world, for the first time. Although the project did not involve an official professional study, and dealt with experiments performed at the initiative of the production company and for the purpose of the film – the trials were conducted by leading researchers, in designated labs.
“The first thing I understood," Rosen tells Haaretz, "is that science knows very little about orgasms in general, and multi-orgasms are mentioned only on the level of footnotes in Masters and Johnson," those being the researchers who, in the 1950s, were first to study the physiology of sex.
“From discussions with researchers I realized that they have so few resources – that they prefer first of all to study the isolated orgasm. They know almost nothing about the female orgasm, or what mechanism even causes it. One of the female researchers appearing in the film says that we know more about stars than we know about what happens within a female sexual situation.”
According to Shtarkshall, the most important sexual organ in a woman’s body, as well as in a man’s, is the brain: “All the sex actually takes place in the brain. There are women who experience an orgasm if you tickle their ear. Researchers, beginning with Masters and Johnson, described the cycle of the sexual response: It was customary to believe that there is a stage of passion, then a stage of arousal, then a stage in which the arousal remains more or less fixed – and then the stage of orgasm. The last stage is [called resolution, or] dissipation.”
Fifteen years ago, the Canadian psychiatrist Rosemary Basson, who studied female sexuality, said that this cycle is too linear. "For women, she argued, there doesn't have to be a stage of passion before the stage of arousal – in other words, passion can be aroused at different stages in women. To this day there’s a debate on this subject among researchers. We have no proof, but the assumption is that in women who experience an extreme multi-orgasm, there is some kind of difference, not necessarily structural, but perhaps in the substances that are secreted to their nervous system, for example. But it’s difficult to research.”
After finding suitable women who agreed to be filmed, Rosen and her team approached sexuality researchers. The two senior brain researchers featured in her movie – Prof. Barry Komisaruk and Dr. Nan Wise, of the psychology department at Rutgers University in New Jersey – had studied orgasms and scanned the brain of a woman experiencing them, but had never scanned a super-orgasm.
"They never thought they'd manage to get that data,” says Rosen. She described the excitement when one of the participants, a young British woman named Janet, experienced two serial orgasms while lying inside the MRI machine, and the discovery of the fact that during the second orgasm, her brain activity was stronger than during the first.
The body part that secretes the hormone oxytocin was far more active, and between the first and second orgasms, there was no decline in the subject's brain activity.
The God particle?
The youngest participant in the experiment was Natalie, a 24-year-old bisexual, who doesn’t believe in monogamous relationships and works as a motorcycle mechanic; another was Francesca, 60, who grew up in a devout Catholic home in Portugal and abstained from sexual relations until she was married. In the Canadian study by Binik, too, many of the women who reported multi-orgasms grew up in religious homes.
“I don’t know what that means,” says Rosen. “Janet [also] said that she grew up in a religious home and believes in God, and she was taught that God wants us to be happy, so as far as she’s concerned, her sexuality doesn’t contradict any belief or any religion, it’s part of her. Her whole house is full of pictures of Jesus. We always see religion and sexuality as contradictory, but she has resolved this conflict.”
Another experiment conducted in the context of the Rosen's film for ITN, which involved testing both in laboratory and home settings, was examining alpha waves during orgasm. When the brain is working hard, as when solving a mathematical problem, the level of alpha waves is low. On the other hand, when the brain is at rest, alpha waves are high.
Past studies showed that when men and women are trying to achieve orgasm, alpha waves are high most of the time; in other words, the brain is at rest. But in a different study, American neuroscientist Nicole Prause discovered that a moment before the orgasm itself, alpha waves diminish and the brain is working hard: that is, it is concentrated and active. And that is the usual neurological situation during orgasm.
They saw a different pattern of activity in super-orgasmic women, Shtarkshall says. “If usually we see an increase in alpha waves and a decline right before orgasm, in their case, the level of waves remains high all the time. It’s possible that these women don’t need the sort of specific concentration that other women achieve at the moment of orgasm. In their case, the brain is always in a state of relaxation. The significance of this finding isn’t clear yet, but the difference compared to other women is clear.”
To examine the level of physical arousal of the super-orgasmic women, Rosen and her production team approached Dr. Gerulf Rieger of the psychology department of the University of Essex. Rieger built an “arousal chamber” to examine the physiological consequences of sexual arousal. The women sit inside this closed space, with a device called a vaginal photoplethysmograph inserted inside them that directs light into the vagina. Based on the amount of light that is refracted, the researcher can determine how much blood is flowing into the area.
The perception is that during arousal, blood vessels in the sexual organs expand.
During the experiment, the women watched porn films, and in order to “balance” their sexual arousal, between those clips, they were shown nature films narrated by David Attenborough. The findings, says Rosen, amazed Rieger: “Already while observing the small sampling of super-orgasmic women he saw that they become stimulated more quickly than ordinary women and that the intensity of their arousal is greater – in other words, much more blood flows to the area. It was twice as fast and twice as intense.
"From speaking to these women, he reached the conclusion that they came in in advance with a more open attitude to the option of sexual arousal, they’re very interested in it and permit themselves [to enjoy it], to the point where they are much quicker to identify what it is that stimulates them.”
The last element examined was the level of oxytocin in the bodies of the super-orgasmic women. Oxytocin, aka the “love hormone,” is secreted during breast-feeding, birth and sexual relations – and also when you meet someone you like.
So that the oxytocin levels wouldn’t be affected by the proximity of women to their partners, they were asked to isolate themselves an hour before the experiment.
Oxytocin levels can be sampled in saliva. A sampling was taken an hour before the experiment, then again after the women isolated themselves, and again after they masturbated and achieved as many orgasms as they wished, in their home environment, which was comfortable for them. A fourth sample was taken about an hour after the orgasm. In addition, during one evening when they didn’t experience anything sexual, they gave another sampling.
“We found that the moment they knew that they were going to experience something sexual, even an hour beforehand, their levels of oxytocin were already high," says Shtarksall. "When you know that you’re going to have sex, you come to it more stimulated and involved. Suddenly sexting and non-physical foreplay sound very logical, because the brain is getting ready for sex and as a result, so is the body. Somehow you’re more involved."
Also, the stronger the orgasm, the more oxytocin was secreted. "It’s not the number of orgasms but the quality of them. It makes no difference if there were 100 boring ones earlier: The one or two powerful ones produce more oxytocin and it remains high longer," he says. "It’s interesting, because oxytocin is related to calm and calm is a very healthy thing. In addition, there’s a chance that you’ll have a stronger relationship with a man who gives you the higher quality orgasms. Mother Nature was thinking about you here!"
Hopefully, with better understanding of the mechanisms of extreme orgasm, non-orgasmic women can be helped, Shtarkshall suggests. “If, for example, we discover that inability to experience an orgasm stems from a shortage of a certain substances, we’ll be able to administer this substance. If we discover that the inability stems from a surplus of a certain substance, we’ll be able to administer something that will block this substance.”
He goes on to mention a phenomenon similar to the extreme multi-orgasm, but far less pleasant: women who suffer from a constant stimulation of the sexual organs. Research on the multi-orgasm should help to solve this problem, too, according to Shtarkshall.
“The American researcher Sandra Leiblum explained the defect and began to study it. When she visited Israel we talked about the idea that there may be a connection between the two phenomena – multi-orgasms and constant stimulation – although the women in one group enjoy themselves while the others suffer immensely. We thought of studying the connection between the two things. Unfortunately, three months later she was hurt in a bicycle accident and died. I don’t have a budget to study these things, because I’m actually retired."
If you ask Prof. Nicole Prause, who also participated in the film, she’ll tell you that the health advantages of sexual arousal have never been researched, says Ayelet Rosen. "Many women will say that it relaxes them, increases their confidence, and they’ll say that they masturbate in order to sleep better – and nobody has studied that. She’s trying to research it, because her vision is that a few years from now, you’ll go to a doctor because you’re suffering from sleeplessness and he’ll recommend masturbation as a cure.”
95 percent of the victims of violence are men. Because women are natural cowards who send men to handle things when they are dangerous.
Chemical and bio-weapons can be concealed better and are more efficient and cost-effective. Terrorists don’t have ethical or juridical or religious restrictions to using them. So why do they use explosives instead?
Brian K. Price, 20 year (and 2 war) military veteran
As others have already pointed out, developing a chemical or biological weapon is extremely difficult. It takes experts in those fields as well as suitable facilities for their development. It also takes considerable time and money.
The most successful to date was Aum Shinrikyo who actively recruited scientists with this type of know how. These scientist did not leave their jobs to hang out in Afghanistan or Iraq or Syria. They remained in their laboratories in Japan. Which means they had access to some of the most advanced scientific equipment available. With this know how and access, they were able to produce Sarin to attack the Tokyo subway. In a confined space with a large number of people, practically the ideal location for the use of chemical weapons, they killed all of 12 people and seriously injured 50 more.
For comparison, the average suicide bomber kills 10 people. Very often they kill more. A truck bomb can kill hundreds of people.
And that’s with technology and know how that is about the high school level. Anybody can trigger a suicide vest. Almost anyone can build one.
Which isn’t to say that other terrorist groups haven’t attempted to build chemical and/or biological weapons of their own. Most groups consider the psychological impact of the weapons of far greater importance than the practical impacts. So even if you kill less people than you would with an IED, the resultant terror (and press coverage) would be substantial. Al Qaeda’s Pursuit of Weapons of Mass Destruction
When the US invaded Afghanistan, it found AQ’s attempts at developing Anthrax and Ricin. They found animals and empty cages and the found videos showing their experimentation. The Indonesian terrorist Hambali was one of their leaders in this effort and they also recruited several “scientists” (mostly graduate students) to develop these weapons. While they had some very minor successes, they could never produce to the level required for actual employment. (Afghanistan, especially under Taliban rule, was about the worst place to attempt any type of scientific endeavor. This is why chemical factories in other countries, such as the Sudan, get bombed or why the WMD threat in Iraq was considered such a threat.)
ISIL attempted to get around this problem by using a far simple chemical for its weapons, chlorine. Chlorine bombings in Iraq (back when they were still AQI) and Islamic State 'using chlorine gas' in Iraq roadside bombs - BBC News
This has nothing to do with an ethical limitation on what terrorists will use and everything to do with how difficult it is to produce compared to how useful it actually is. In the end, explosives are easier to get (or manufacture), they are easier to employ, and they kill more people than chemical or biological weapons with considerably less risk of the weapon causing literal “blow back.”
Matthew Franklin, Ex-Infantryman, Ex-Kendoka, recreational shooter
Chemical and biological weapons are NOT more efficient, or more cost-effective.
A chemical or bio-weapons program is a costly investment that requires long-term investment of capital and management to successfully weaponize product. Even then, reliable delivery can still be somewhat iffy. While you may be able to throw some ammonia cleaner and chlorine bleach together in your bathtub and give yourself a minor chemical burn and cause your eyebrows to fall out, to consistently create biochem weapons that you can successfully manufacture, store, and deploy (even if you don’t care about the survival of your operators), you need to expend a lot of time, money, and you need to have real estate that you can build secure facilities on that will be in operation for a number of years.
How many terrorist organizations attract postdoctorate-level chemists and disease experts? How many of them have the permanently-controlled real estate to set up the facilities to produce anthrax/VX/phosgene/botulism/tularemia/ebola in controlled conditions, and prepare it into specialized munitions and delivery systems? The Aum Shinryoko cult pretty much had to devote all of its resources to its program for years, which only ended up killing 13 people.
Chemical and biological weapons are difficult to employ. Japanese experiments with Unit 731 proved that you have to spray a LOT of anthrax to get desired results. Gas chemical weapons are heavier than atmosphere, and so are at the mercy of humidity and prevailing winds. After the first year of gas warfare in World War I, casualties dropped off dramatically and the weapon became more of a means of restricting mobility rather than causing casualties since everyone had chemical protection. It is much easier to train someone to operate firearms and simple explosive devices than it is to teach them all the protocols for successfully employing a chemical or bio-weapon for maximum effectiveness.
Explosives and gun attacks also seem to have more media “impact,” with the BOOM BOOM and BANG BANG, the clouds and fires from explosions, and all that. Terrorism, is after all, about perceptions. Dramatic attacks convey power and violence. Gas and germs…not so much, especially if it’s easily contained and low body count.
Cristian Ariel Rodriguez, Blacksmith. Military-political-science & history enthusiast.
As pointed, they are “complex” to make. Although chemical weapons are not that complex and can be made without lab equipment on improvised facilities with the proper chemicals.
The terrorist did use this kind of weapons in Syria. Several times the so called “moderated” beheaders have attacked the Syrian Army with Sarin gas and staged “government chemical attacks” against the civilians.
John Dane, Studies wars and warfare of the 20th century
Depends on which terror organization in question. Sure they’re sort-of cost effective but they aren’t efficient, they’re unpredictable, and the process to develop them is very, very, delicate. They don’t discriminate between friend or foe so a sick man heading their way or gusts of wind blowing in their direction will guarantee that their troops will die as well. As for the groups in question, that entirely depends on the resources they have, the know how, and the commitment. Thankfully, most of them lack two of the three. But there are some that are just that crazy and callous to go forward with that.
Omkar Bapat, I have knowledge of history
Because even evil has standards. Chemical and Bio munitions are extremely dangerous because they are too perfect. Once you release it, that’s it. There is no way for it to be cancelled, stopped or called back. The primary objective of such groups is to gain territory. What use is the territory if it is contaminated by bio or chemical agents? Also, such weapons are too cruel to be used as they produce devastating effects. Even Hitler refused to authorise poison gas as a weapon in war.
Actually, Terrorists do have ethical and moral restrictions. If terrorists would use biological weapons or poisons, which are difficult to control, the backlash would be bad. Even their own supporters might betray them, simply because biological weapons can be so dangerous. The whole world would hunt them down. A the moment, nobody is using biological weapons, nobody, not even the worst dictator.
As to chemical weapons, the offer no clear advantage to explosives, as far as i know. Explosives are actually rather easy to produce and hide.
Feminism in Europe makes second-generation male Muslim immigrants suicide bombers. Only the patriarchy as a social and political system can achieve justice.
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Why does this site show photos that depict brutality? Get real, man! Because reality is brutal.
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